High vacuum (HV), ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and extreme high vacuum (XHV) all operate at different pressure ranges and require different processes. It is only by examining the differences at a molecular level, that one can begin to appreciate the challenges associated with achieving and working in each condition.
One difference between these vacuum levels is that in HV and UHV, the gas load is dominated by outgassing from surface gas desorption whereas in XHV, the main load is from gas permeation from the chamber walls and other materials.
Each vacuum level is also suited to different applications. For instance, HV conditions are typically needed in industrial and research applications such as plastic medical applications and mass spectroscopy, whilst UHV conditions are typically used in surface analytical techniques, thin film growth and research applications such as particle accelerators.
LEARN MORE ABOUT THE FUNDAMENTALS OF THESE VACUUM LEVELS SUCH AS:
- The type of vacuum pumps used to generate HV, UHV and XHV
- High, ultra-high & extreme high vacuum generation and measurement
- How to detect leaks in high, ultra & extreme high vacuum
- The different use cases and applications for each level
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